Evolution Handbook

Chapter 3:

The Origin of the Earth

Why the Earth did not evolve out of a molten state

This chapter is based on pp. 117-151 of Origin of the Universe (Volume One of our three-volume Evolution Disproved Series). Not included in this chapter are at least 38 statements by scientists. You will find them, plus much more, on our website: evolution-facts.org.

Within the past 50 years there has surfaced a large amount of scientific data that disproves evolution. In this present study, we will primarily focus on just one of these discoveries.

And this one discovery, which took years to carefully research, itself disproves the theories of the Big Bang, stellar evolution, and the formation of earth from molten rocks.

That discovery concerns something that is very small in nature, yet there are trillions of them! Although evolutionist scientists have tried very hard to disprove this discovery, they have been unable to do so.

The man who researched it out is Robert V. Gentry, and the incredible discovery is astounding (*#1/9 What Scientists and Research Writers Have Said about the Research of Robert Gentry / #2/16 What Other Scientists Have Said about It / #3/14 What Evolution Has Said about It*).

Consider these facts, which were uncovered by Gentry’s research:

(1) The major basement rocks on our planet (granite) did not originate from the gradual cooling of molten lava, but came into being in their present solid form. That fact completely disproves the Big Bang and every evolutionary theory of the origins of stars and our world.

(2) Those major rock formations came into existence within a space of less than three minutes time! Incredible? Yes! But scientific evidence confirms it.

You are about to learn about the trillions upon trillions of radiohalos that are in all the granite rocks, boulders, mountains, and foundation strata of the world. Those little halos prove that those rocks came into existence in solid form within less than 180 seconds!

The above is the introduction to a lengthy chapter in our three-volume set. The complete chapter (chapter 5) is on our website. Here is a brief summary of the findings:


In the late 1800s, scientists began studying rocks with microscopes in order to better understand their crystals and composition. Learning how to cut rocks into thin slices, they turned their microscopes on certain rocks, especially granite,—and found small colored concentric circles inside them. It was eventually realized that these were actually spherical shells that went around a central grain in the center (something like slicing an onion through the middle, and finding circles; that is, circles inside circles.) These circles (actually sliced sections of the spheres) were given the name, "halos." We today call them "radiohalos." (The technical term is pleochroic halos.)

A radiohalo is the mark left around a particle of a radioactive substance by the radiation coming from the particle. It can only form in a solid, such as rock; since, in a liquid or in molten rock, the mark would dissipate and could not be seen. 

POLONIUM-218 HALO—Illustrated below is an idealized cross section of a polonium-218 halo. Its alpha particles have 6.00 MeV (million electron volts) of energy. Polonium 218 (Po 218) has a half-life of 3 minutes. Its decay is followed by two other alpha halo producers: polonium 214 (Po 214) and polonium 210 (Po 210). Each one produces a halo in the granite. When sliced through the central grain, they appear to be three concentric circles.

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1 - There are many polonium 218, 214, and 210 halos in granite; in fact, careful specimen counts and extrapolations based on them reveal that there are trillions upon trillions of them in granites all over the world.

2 - The vast majority of these polonium 218, 214, and 210 radiohalos have no uranium 238 halos with them. Therefore they are primary polonium halos, and not daughter products of (not made by) uranium 238.

3 - The primary polonium-218 (Po 218) halos are totally independent of radioactive parents. They are original in all rock in which they are found. There is no evidence that they were caused by uranium in the central grain or by passing uranium streams.

4 - These independent Po-218 halos develop their half-life halo in only three minutes (in other words, they emit radiation for only a few minutes), so the radiohalos had to be in those rocks when the rocks were first brought into existence.

5 - The rock in which they are found had to be solid at the time it was first brought into existence, or those halos could not form inside it within that three minutes. However, all evolutionary theories say that the earth was molten for millions of years.

6 - Since Po-218 halos are found by the trillions throughout all the granite of the world, all of that granite had to originally become solid in far less than three minutes, when it was first created, in order for the Po-218 halos to form properly.

7 - Since this granite is the basement rock, forming a thick layer, with the continents of the world above it and the basalt and magma below it, all this continental foundation had to be formed solid in less than three minutes time. With this fact in mind, there is little reason to expect the magma below and the continents above to have been formed in millions of years, if the granite between them was formed in less than three minutes.

For example, nearly everyone has dropped an Alka-Seltzer tablet into a glass of water and watched it fizz away. If you found a glass of ice with half an Alka-Seltzer tablet in the bottom, and bubbles going up in the ice, what would you conclude? Obviously the ice froze very quickly, or the tablet and bubbles would have disappeared. So we can know that the granites became solid in minutes, or the polonium radiohalos would not have formed.

8 - The alpha-recoil technique has proven that these isolated, independent Po-218 halos were definitely not caused by "passing uranium or other radioactive solutions" as theorized by critics of this discovery. Alpha-recoil research reveals that radioactive damage trails are always left by passing radioactive solutions.

9 - The granites should not be classified with the igneous rocks (all of which came from molten rock), but rather as primordial or Genesis rocks. Granite (generally almost white in color) is original in its present solid form and is not secondary to a prior cooling from the black basalt beneath it or from anything else.

10 - Granite with its large crystals cannot be made from any molten rock, including molten granite! When men melt granite, and then let it cool, it always reforms itself into ryolite, never into granite. Ryolite has smaller crystals and looks different. This is another evidence that granite was not formed from molten rock.

11 - Po-218, Po-214, and Po-210 halos in granite cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. No one has provided an acceptable explanation of how independent polonium could have gotten inside those granites in the first place. It is an impossible situation, but there they are.

12 - Lab tests on polonium halos are often made on mica in granite. But fluorite, another large granite mineral, also has polonium halos. Unlike mica, fluorite is a totally solid mineral, and polonium halos imbedded within it are the same as though they were imbedded in solid, thick, unflawed glass.

13 - Another strong evidence that the independent polonium halos are unique, and not daughter products of uranium, is the fact that the ring structures of polonium are different than those in uranium-chain halos. The sunburst pattern of delicate needle fission tracks, always seen in uranium radiohalo chains after etching, is totally missing from polonium radiohalos.


14 - Research into true secondary polonium halos (coming from uranium) revealed that only polonium-210 (and not also 214 or 218) halos are to be found within coalified wood. This is due to the fact that secondary Po-214 and Po-218, with their very short half-lives, could not escape and relocate rapidly enough from uranium parents to form halos.

15 - The presence of Po-210 halos in the wood reveals a very rapid deposition of the wood during a flood.

16 - Elliptical (squashed, oval-shaped) Po-210 halos reveal that rapid covering of this wood occurred, as material was piled on top of it.

17 - The existence of double Po-210 halos (squashed halos, with round ones superimposed on top of them) reveals that rapid formation of the rock strata above the coalified wood occurred; for, within only a few decades, the increase of pressure from additional overlay material had stopped occurring.

18 - Because these wood samples came from three different geological strata levels, separated according to evolutionary theory by millions of years, and because the seven major events that happened to one group of samples happened to them all—firm evidence is thus provided that a single Flood (occurring at one time in history) was responsible for the rapid deposition of all these strata. This is strong evidence against evolutionary dating of the rock strata of earth.


19 - Analysis of zircon crystals, from five levels of hot rock in a 15,000-foot hole, revealed that almost no increase of lead escape had occurred at even the lowest level. This is powerful evidence in favor of a young earth and is consistent with a 6000-year age.

20 - Analysis of helium content in those small zircon crystals revealed amazingly high retention in 197° C [386.6o F] zircon crystals. This provides a double proof for a very young age for the earth. If the earth were millions of years old, that helium would have totally escaped from the zircon crystals.

21 - The lead-206/lead-207 ratio is too high, which is additional evidence that the independent polonium halos were not originally derived from uranium.

Robert Gentry has written a 316-page book about his findings. You will find it to be fascinating reading. It not only discusses the scientific facts, but also tells the story of how he made the discoveries, reported on them extensively in professional journals,—and eventually was shut out of the scientific community, when it was realized that his discoveries supported Creation. The book is entitled, Creation’s Tiny Mystery, and can be obtained by sending $12.95, plus $2.00 to cover shipping charges, to Earth Science Associates, Box 12067, Knoxville, TN 37912.




1 - Draw a diagram of a polonium 218 halo and identify the various parts.

2 - Write a brief report on granite, what it is composed of, where it is found, and its commercial importance.

3 - Why does Gentry classify granite as a "Genesis rock"?

4 - List 10 of the 21 findings of Robert Gentry and their implications.

5 - Write a brief paragraph or two, describing a radiohalo. Also explain why and how was it formed.


It was not until the 13th century that navigators began using compasses (needles floating on oil). But bacteria, animals, and birds have tiny bits of magnetite, a natural magnetic stone, in their brains to help guide them in their travels. How can this possibly be? Where did the stones come from? How do they use them to orientate and guide them?