Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 2 


"Today our duty is to destroy the myth of evolution, considered as a simple, understood and explained phenomenon which keeps rapidly unfolding before us. Biologists must be encouraged to think about the weaknesses and extrapolations that the theoreticians put forward or lay down as established truths. The deceit is sometimes unconscious, but not always, since some people, owing to their sectarianism, purposely overlook reality and refuse to acknowledge the inadequacies and falsity of their beliefs." *Pierre-Paul Grasse, Evolution of Living Organisms (1977), p. 8.

"To my mind, the theory does not stand up at all." *H. Lipson, "A Physicist Looks at Evolution, " Physics Bulletin 31 (1980), p. 138.

"The evolution theory can by no means be regarded as an innocuous natural philosophy, but that it is a serious obstruction to biological research. It obstructs as has been repeatedly shown the attainment of consistent results, even from uniform experimental material. For everything must ultimately be forced to fit this theory. An exact biology cannot, therefore, be built up." *H. Neilsson, Synthetische Artbildng, 1954, p. 11.

"Evolution itself is accepted by zoologists, not because it has been observed to occur . . or can be proved by logical coherent evidence, but because the only alternative, special creation, is clearly incredible." *D.M.S. Watson, "Adaptation," in Nature, Vol. 123, p. 233 (1929).


In 1970, the public press proclaimed the latest triumph of modern evolutionary research: *Dr. J.P. Danielli had artificially produced a living cell! "Marvelous, astounding" were among the comments made.

What Danielli actually did was to carefully arrange a favorable environment of dishes with continuous warmth and food. Into one he placed several living cells obtained from living tissue. Carefully, he removed a part from a living cell and quickly put the same part from another living cell into the first one. Then he replaced another part from a different cell that was still whole and alive, and on it went, part after part. That was how Dr. Danielli "synthesized a living cell!"

Efforts to prove evolution include claims of so-called "cellular evolution." And yet a self-evolved cell tissue would be just as impossible as is the self-formulation of DNA, RNA, amino acids, protein, fats, sugars, and enzymes. A living cell includes all those factors, plus much mare.

The truth is that not only is there a powerful DNA and amino acid barrier to evolutionary origins of life, but there is also a formidable cell barrier as well.

Here are facts you will want to know about this masterpiece of creative handiwork. Learning them, you should be prepared for those who would try to convince you of cellular evolution.

1 - The Amazing Cell

MASTER CRAFTSMANSHIP A Boeing 747 is a collection of 4 million non-flying parts, but because of design and organization, continual guidance by intelligence, and a continuous supply of energy, repair parts, and repair work--it flies.

A living cell is enormously complex. Francis Crick, a world-renowned Nobel Prize recipient for his co-discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule, tried to explain in writing the structure of the human cell, and then he stopped, and gave as his reason: "Because it is so complicated, the reader should not attempt to struggle with all the details" (*F. Crick, Life Itself, p. 71). As you will learn in this chapter, there are so many mysterious details that Francis Crick struggles with them also.

A living creature is not merely a bunch of parts, it is also organization, purposive design, and intelligence at work.

"[The instructions within the DNA of a single cell] if written out would fill a thousand 600-page books. Each cell is a world brimming with as many as two hundred trillion tiny groups of atoms called molecules. . Our 46 [human] chromosome 'threads' linked together would measure more than six feet. Yet the [cell] nucleus that contains them is less than four ten-thousandths of an inch in diameter." *Rick Gore, "The Awesome Worlds within a Cell" in National Geographic, September 1976, pp. 357-358, 360.

WHAT IS IN A CELL Back in the 19th century when men were trying to work out their theory of evolution, they knew nothing about Mendelian genetics, the DNA molecule, or the contents of the cell.

Cells vary greatly in size among different plants and animals, but generally they are quite small and can only be studied with the aid of a microscope.

Some of the smallest creatures have the most complicated cells. The cell of a one-celled amoeba accomplishes many functions, while specialized cells in the human body, for example, accomplish far fewer tasks.

One centimeter (cm) equals 0.4 inch, or 4/10th of an inch. The average plant cell is about 0.005 cm (5/1000ths of a centimeter) in diameter. The average animal cell is about 0.001 cm (1/1000th of a centimeter). Bacterial cells vary from half the size of regular animal cells, down to such tiny cells that they cannot be seen with a light microscope. The largest cells are bird eggs.

Within a container that is only 1/1000 of an inch across, is to be found a fantastic assortment of special structures, each of them appointed to do a certain work.

"The cell is as complicated as New York City." *Look, January 16, 1962, p. 46.

2 - Parts of the Cell

MARVELS IN A CELL The cell is supposed to have originated and evolved by random accidents and unintentional blunders. But let us now take a closer look at this city that is a living cell:

1 - Basic unit. The cell is the basic unit of life. Every living thing is composed of cells. All living things are but a collection of cells. Some creatures have only one cell; most have large numbers of them. The body of a man has more than a million million of them. That is one trillion.

2 - Size. Most cells are so small that they can only be seen under a microscope. It would take 40,000 human cells to fill this letter o. The surface of one square inch of skin on your body contains over a million cells.

3 - Shape. Cells come in a variety of shapes, but each one is structured just the right way to accomplish its designated purpose. Cells may be shaped like coils, cubes, boxes, snowflakes, rods, saucers, or blobs of jelly.


We think we understand it, but the more we research into the cell--the less we find that we know. The amount of coded knowledge, practical technology, systems management, manufacturing specialties, storage, and maintenance that goes on every moment in a living cell is astounding. Yet it is only one-thousandth of an inch across.



4 - Specialized cells. It would not accomplish much to merely dump a trillion look-alike cells into your body. Most cells are specialized. You have nerve cells, bone cells, blood cells, muscle cells, and more beside. There are specialized tissue cells in each of your organs: your liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, pituitary, and on and on.

5 - Living. Each cell is living and has the basic life functions. That is, it breathes, exhales, takes in food, emits waste, grows, and reproduces. All this is in each cell.

6 - Complexity. A closer look at a typical cell reveals a thin covering called a membrane, , through which oxygen, carbon dioxide, liquid, nutriments, and other substances can pass. Inside the membrane is a jelly-like fluid, called protoplasm. Within this fluid, to our astonishment, we find a whole host of small objects with various shapes. Not one of them is useless; everything has a special purpose. Without all of them, the cell would cease to exist.

7 - There from the beginning. Everything had to be there in the very beginning or, from the very start, that cell could not have existed!

8 - Control Center. Near the center of the cell is the nucleus, which is the cell's control center. It has a set of blueprints stored within it that guide the cell in all of its functions. The master plan is the arrangement of a chemical compound called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

9 - Unique Code. All of this DNA, whether it comes from a plant or animal, looks about the same and has about the same chemical makeup. Only the code is different. It is obvious that a single, powerful Intelligence designed and made all this. The code within the DNA makes all the difference in the world. As a result, the cells will form themselves into a dog, zebra, fern, or catfish.

10 - Both little or big. Bacteria are among the smallest of cells; 50,000 of them would measure only one inch. Bird's eggs are the largest, with an ostrich yolk about the size of a baseball. But most cells are about the same size. Cells in a mouse are no smaller than cells in an elephant; the elephant just has more of them.

11- All are complicated. But even the smallest cells--the bacteria--are extremely complicated. Thousands of structures and on going activities are to be found within even the smallest living cell, all because of complicated information, written in code form, within its DNA molecules.

"A bacterium is far more complex than any inanimate system known to man. There is not a laboratory in the world which can compete with the biochemical activity of the smallest living organism." *Sir James Gray, chapter in Science Today (1961), p. 21 [professor of Zoology, Cambridge University].

12 - Plans and executes: But what that tiny cell can do is amazing. For example, it can take in food and water, always deciding just what it wants and will accept. This same self-contained decisiveness extends to its excrement of wastes, and all its other functions.

13 - Self-producing. Each cell even makes itself! It manufactures all the materials of which it is made, and then puts them all into the proper location and connects them properly. It knows how to harness all the energy needed to carry on its various functions. It has the insight to store energy, raw materials, and finished products that it will not need till later. Frequently it knows how to manufacture chemical compounds to be used in other cells somewhere else. When it excretes those chemicals, other cells know that they should carry them to the proper place where they are to go.

It is one thing to have a code in the cell; it is another thing to be able to think, plan, and execute. It is as if each cell had a tiny brain within it!

"Protoplasm has one of the most complicated and beautiful structures in the universe. So elaborate are cells that one can say that nature had already done most of her job by the time she evolved them. After that it was merely a matter of putting cells together to build fishes, birds, horses, elephants--even human beings." "Rutherford Platt, "The Wondrous `Inner Space' of Living Cells" in Reader's Digest, June 1964.

14 - Selective doorway. The cell membrane lets some particles pass right through it, but it is selective of which ones and which way they will go in or out. Various liquids seem to be selectively pumped through. We are still trying to figure it out. Some materials are actually engulfed by the membrane. Scientists call the process "cellular drinking." The cell membrane sends out finger-like projections which surround the fluid or substance, and then draw it in. Having done this, a small bubble of membrane will continue to surround that food substance, as it gradually moves inward. Then, in some unknown way, it is absorbed.

We could go on and on with our description of structures and functions within the cell and fill several books the size of this one. But here is a very, very brief look of several more things you will find in a living cell:

15 - Ribosomes and RNA. . There are tiny granules in the cell called ribosomes. These are little factories which assemble the amino acids into protein. Messenger RNA, from the DNA in the cell nucleus, carries instructions to the ribosomes as to what to do, how much to do, and when to stop and start! With the instructions received, more messages go out to other parts of the cell to send in various proportions of amino acids to those particular ribosomes. Within it, they are connected in their proper sequence to make one or more of the hundreds of different specialized proteins used in the body.

Each cell needs over 75 "helper molecules, " all working together in careful harmony, to make one protein as instructed by one base series DNA. Some of the molecules are several types of RNA; most are highly specific proteins.

"Most of that energy, perhaps many times more than previously supposed, is used for proofreading processes that ensure the accuracy of such synthesis, according to Michael A. Savageau and Rolf R. Freter of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Living cells are fastidious about their proteins, checking and double-checking them at particular stages during synthesis." -*"Cells Energy Use High for Protein Synthesis," in Chemical & Engineering News, August 20, 1979, p. 6.

16 - Enzymes. Enzymes are made also. Without them the DNA and protein would be useless. Enzymes are proteins with special slots for selecting and holding other molecules for speedy reactions. Each activating enzyme has five slots: two are for chemical coupling, one is for energy (ATP), and--very important--two are used to make a non-chemical three-base code name for each different amino acid group. If this was not done, the cell could not know which amino acid was which.

Each enzyme carries a "signboard" telling which chemical compound it has inside it. The cell reads the signs--and selects the enzymes it wants to use! How can the enzyme be smart enough to write the signboard? How are the cell units smart enough to read it?

The living cell has to have at least 20 of these activating enzymes. They are called "translases." There is one of the 20 for each of the specific R-group/code name (amino acid/tRNA) pairs. Yet these 20 translases and their 100 specific slots would be (1) useless without ribosomes. Ribosomes are a mixture of 50 proteins plus rRNA, for they break the base-coded message of heredity into three-letter code names. (2) They would be destructive without an ever fresh supply of ATP energy to keep the translases from tearing apart the pairs they are supposed to put together. (3) They would vanish if they and other special proteins did not continually make new translase proteins to replace the ones constantly wearing out.



But only specific proteins can make specific proteins. How did the one get there without the other? Impossible by evolution, but easily done by Creation.

"Now we know that the cell itself is far more complex than we had imagined. It includes thousands of functioning enzymes, each one of them a complex machine itself. Furthermore, each enzyme comes into being in response to a gene, a strand of DNA. The information content of the gene--its complexity--must

be as great as that of the enzyme it controls." *Frank B. Salisbury, "Doubts About the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution, " in American Biology Teacher, September 1971, pp. 336-338.

17 - Mitochondria. Mitochondria are egg-shaped bodies in the cell which receive electrons from enzymes in a precise manner, which results in an energy build-up. Mitochondria are little batteries which, when charged up by electrons from certain enzymes, provide the energy for the cell. In the process, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is formed and exuded. ATP provides energy power packs for the cell which enables it to carry on much of its work. When the charge in any ATP is used up, its electrons unite with oxygen and hydrogen to form water, which is then used for other things.

18-Golgi bodies. The Golgi bodies within cells are small concave structures, stacked in one another like a set of kitchen bowls. Golgi bodies manufacture or assemble hormones, enzymes and certain other materials which that cell--or some other cell--will use. As with everything else, RNA messengers continually bring instructions as to what to make, when to begin, how much to make, and when to stop. Any cell which secretes substances for use in other cells--will always have Golgi bodies. But there will be different ones in different organs. In the thyroid, Golgi bodies manufacture thyroxin, in the pancreas they make insulin and other substances. So, in addition to making other substances, it is the Golgi bodies which manufacture body hormones.

19 - More on the Code. Each cell contains enough DNA information within the cell nucleus, not only to perform its own functions, but also to rebuild the entire animal or plant it is part of!

The nucleus not only sends messages, it also makes decisions as to when to make new cells. When this decision has been made, the chromosomes within the nucleus divide into two, so that each of them now has a complete DNA code of information. Then a new cell is made. What kind of cell will it be? muscle, bone, nerve, endocrine, skin, etc. No problem; the cell knows exactly what to do, when to do it, and how to do it. The information is all stored in the DNA within the nucleus, and the brains to work it all out is there somewhere.

20 - The ER. . Then there is the endoplasmic reticulum, called ER. This consists of sheets of membranes within the cell which store and transport materials made by the ribosomes. This ER is a thin skin-like material with a double wall and all folded oddly on itself. The space between its outer walls appear to be canals for shipping materials. The ER performs many different functions, but how it does them we do not know.

The RNA is apparently made inside the nucleus, and it is the messenger, mentioned earlier, which sends signals to the ribosomes and perhaps other cell structures. How it travels is still unknown.

21- Replacements. Cells gradually wear out and new ones are made to take their place. Yet the task is carried out rapidly, accurately, and with exquisite care and thought.

"A living cell is a marvel of detailed and complex architecture. Seen through a microscope there is an appearance of almost frenetic activity. On a deeper level it is known that molecules are being synthesized at an enormous rate. Almost any enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of more than 100 other molecules per second. In ten minutes, a sizable fraction of total mass of a metabolizing bacterial cell has been synthesized. The information content of a simple cell has been estimated as around 1012 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica."*Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia (1974 ed.), pp. 893-4.

And as these replacements are made, they are done with exactness.

"The cells from a carrot or from the liver of a mouse consistently retain their respective tissue and organism identities after countless cycles of reproduction. "*Phillip C. Hanawalt, "Simple Inorganic Molecules to Complex Free-living Cells" in Molecules to Living Cells (1980), p. 3.

"All life . . reproduces with incredible fidelity." *Lynn Margulis, Symbiosis in Cell Evolution (1981), p. 87.

22 - Plant cells. And then there are plant cells. These are just as astounding as animal cells.

"The largest single manufacturing process in the world takes place in one of the smallest units of life-cells of green plants.

"The manufacturing process is.. photosynthesis. Each year this process accounts for the transformation of 100 billion tons of the inorganic element carbon into organic forms that support life.

"By contrast, all the big blast furnaces of the world make only a half-billion tons of steel in the same time. "*New York Times, November 13, 1966, p. 6E.

Did your 100,000,000,000,000 cells just happen? Where did this astounding city of cells that is you come from? An intelligent master Designer is responsible for planning and making it. Only an ignorant man would suggest that it made itself.

OVER FORTY THINGS There are over 40 different objects packed into the tiny cell so small you cannot see it. Here is a partial listing:

Amino acids, amyloplast, basal body, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, cisternae, centrioles, cilia, chloroplast, chromoplast, chromosomes, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) helix, enzymes, desmosomes, extracellular space, flagella, golgi complex, granular endoplasmic intermediate junctions, lysosomes, messenger RNA strands, microfilaments, macrotubules, microvill, mitochondria (power plants), mitochondria) DNA and RNA, nucleolus, nucleus, nucleus' membrane, plasmodesmata, plastids, proteins, reticules (traffic lanes), ribosomes (protein producing centers), ribosomal RNA strands, smooth endoplasmic reticules (traffic lanes), transfer RNA strands, terminal bars, tonoplast (vacuole membrane), vacuoles, vesicles, etc.

There is no evidence that the cell has ever evolved, from anything! It has always been in its present most-complicated form.

"[William Paley said] `Where there is design there must be a designer and where there is contrivance there must be a contriver' . . If we can discover evidence for design then, unlike Paley's case, it cannot be refuted, because there is no evidence that the cell has actually evolved. We simply do not know of any life except that based on cells. Nor is there any evidence that a subcellular form of life has ever existed."L.R. Croft, How Life Began (1988), p. 128.

For additional information see quotation supplement, "Cells are too Complicated for Evolution," at the end of this chapter.

FUSED CELLS Scientists are not able to make cells nor are they able to decide how they could have made themselves in the beginning. But a new field of study concerns the fabrication of fused cells. These are laboratory experiments in which a cell from one species is linked together with a cell from another species. The objective is to let the two cells, now united, divide and produce a new species! New monster, would be the better name for it. But, never fear, the new monster cell just begins to divide, and then, very soon, it stops dividing. But in the process, it casts off genes. Scientists study these in an effort to "map" chromosomes.

"I watched Dr. Hayden Coon. . fuse the cells of a hamster and a human. . Researchers have fused human cells with mouse, chicken, and even mosquito cells. There is no possibility, however, of creating a monster with the head of a man and the tail of a mouse. Fused cells of different animals will not develop beyond a colony of single cells.

"What fused cells will do, however, is lose the chromosomes of one species, in stages. For instance, each time hamster-human cells divide, some human chromosomes disappear."*Rick Gore, "Awesome Worlds Within a Cell, " National Geographic Society, September 1976, p. 385.

Just think of it! For over 20 years, scientists have been uniting cells of different species, but each time the cells refuse to produce a NEW species! If ever there was evidence needed that cross-species transitions cannot be made, it is this!

"In one [experiment], the dark protoplast of barley begins to fuse with the light protoplast of soybean. The fused cell divides as would a natural species, to a point. Dr. Kao's super-hybrids have yet to grow beyond the hundred-cell stage." *Op. cit., p. 391.


A TINY BACTERIUM There is a small bacterium which has been studied quite a bit. It is called Escherichia coli. This little creature is one of the smallest living creatures known, and yet it carries genetic information within its cells which is so complicated that one researcher, after applying mathematics to it, decided that the DNA code within this single bacterium could not have been formed by chance, even if given 5 billion years to do the job! In spite of such a scientific fact, evolutionists teach that all of life, including that single bacterium and every other living thing in our world, originated out of nothing and evolved by random chance within the last 5 billion years!

..Remember now; we are only speaking about ONE tiny, microscopic bacterium. There are millions of other types of creatures, most of them much more complicated.

"In the genetic information found on the chromosomes of this and other organisms, a double order is found. The chemical pattern for the composition of the genes themselves is one order of information, but in addition the genes are found on the chromosomes at specific localities which are related to the order of use by the organism for sequential biochemical changes.

"Aside from the problem of evolving the genes, one wonders how the genes became located in their proper order. Eden addresses the simple question of getting only 2 genes in order. It is postulated that these genes evolved earlier at random localities on the chromosomes. Eden estimates that it would take 5000 Ma [5,000 million years] for the changes necessary to bring 2 genes into their proper order of use. This calculation is based on the observed rates of reproduction and the generous assumption that this bacterium would have been spread over the earth in a layer 2 c. thick for that extended period of time. The 5000 Ma give no time for the genes to evolve, a much more complex process, nor does it give time for the evolution of other organisms, some of which are several hundred times more complex.

"Suffice it to say that many orders of magnitude of time more than the 4600 Ma postulated for the earth are required for the improbable events of the scenario of organic evolution." Ariel A. Roth, "Some Questions About Geochronology," in Origins, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986, pp. 7879. (Based on *M. Eden, Mathematical Challenges to Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution (1967), a book resulting from the Wistar Institute of that year).

THE PROTOCELL In an effort to theorize how the cell began, evolutionists have imagined that there once was a "protocell" that later developed into a fully-equipped and operating cell. But reputable scientists object, declaring that a protocell would be impossible to produce, would be inadequate for the task, and could not later change into a more complex cell.




"It is difficult enough to see how an imperfect translational system could ever have existed . . That such a cell might undergo further evolution, improving itself by 'selecting' advantageous changes which would be inevitably lost in the next cycle of replication, seems contradictory in the extreme [and a violation of the "non-inheritance of acquired characteristics" principle] . . That an error-prone translational system would lead inevitably to self-destruction is not only a theoretical prediction but also a well-established empirical observation."*Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1986), pp. 266-268.

"A final difficulty existed for the metabolic and genetic apparatus of the first cell. By definition, the cellular systems of the `protocell' would have been less efficient than its present day descendant. Woese acknowledges that such early systems would be much more likely to make an error, to the point that error-free gene translation could not have been done. However, an inaccurate translation does not lead to a more accurate translational system." Kevin L. Anderson, "Prebiotic Formation of the First Cell, " in Creation Research Society Quarterly, September 1989, p. 60.

Evolutionists tell us that, given enough time, the cell could somehow have evolved in random fashion. But *Mora calls this delusional thinking a retreat into "infinite escape clauses" (`Peter T. Mora, "The Folly of Probability" in *S.W. Fox led.), Origins of Prebiological Systems (1966), pp. 3952.).

The primitive cell must have possessed the ability to metabolize, generate and transduce energy, and reproduce. But above all, it had to be able to change, since this is the very essence of cellular evolution.

"Ubiquity" means "being everywhere at once." In the following quotation, "ubiquity" is used in reference to cell units that are always present in all living cells.

"Harold Morowitz postulated the minimal requirements for a self-replicating cell. Reasoning, in part, that ubiquity implies antiquity, he determined that constituents such as DNA, tRNA, ATP, NADH, and ribosomes must have formed early. Thus, these molecules set a lower limit to possible size and simplicity of the `protocell. *Morowitz suggested a cell with 45 functions and a diameter of about 1000 A. As he concedes:

" 'It is almost certainly a lower limit, since we have allowed no control functions, no vitamin metabolism and extremely limited metabolism. Such a cell would be vulnerable to environmental fluctuation.' [*H.J. Morowitz, "The Minimum Size of Cells" in *G.E.W. Wostenholme and *M.O. O'Connor (eds.), Principles of Biomolecular Organization (1966), pp. 446-459.]

"Today the minimal size and postulated number of functions in the 'protocell' would most likely be larger since additional functions have been determined that are ubiquitous and logically required. For example, Morowitz's postulations were prior to a more complete understanding of membrane-bound cellular structures. Our current knowledge suggests that functions such as reproduction and energy generation would require a number of distinct chemical entities, perhaps no fewer than the minimum in contemporary cells. Also, such capability can hardly be envisioned apart from some type of cellular membrane. Finally, compartmentation in the soluble phase is necessary to separate synthesis from degradation, and maintain the cyclic asymmetry required for cell division." Kevin L. Anderson, "Prebiotic Formation of the First Cell, " in Creation Research Society Quarterly, September 1989, p. 57.

The cell had to spring into being, perfect from the very beginning; complete in its vast number of parts and functions. And only a CREATED CELL could thus suddenly appear with that original perfection. If scientists, with all their ingenious knowledge, techniques, and equipment, cannot make a cell-living or dead from raw chemical compounds in their laboratory now, why should they expect that a perfect, living cell could have formed in the beginning by the random action of sloshing seawater?

ALL MADE BY THE SAME DESIGNER Every living plant and animal in the world is composed of basic units which are startlingly similar. They all have such things as protein, DNA, enzymes, etc., in common. And they all have cells. One researcher, *Willmer, discovered that there are only four basic types of cells, and each of the four are consistently found in each living creature!

There can be no doubt but that living beings were intelligently designed, and not formulated by random action of molecules. Yet, the evidence is alike overwhelming that those living beings came from the hand of the same Designer!

"Professor E. N. Willmer of Cambridge University . . [is] the world authority in tissue culture; that is, on persuading little isolated groups of cells or even single cells to grow on a drop of liquid which can be placed under the microscope. Cells, generally speaking, don't much care for isolation and have to be fed a nutrient juice extracted from other living tissue to keep them happy.

"When Willmer placed minced-up fragments of chicken heart in the drop of liquid hanging beneath his microscope slide and watched, he saw that, after a while, undifferentiated cells began to creep out, and these were of four distinct types. Most numerous was a cell capable of forming bone and muscle or secreting collagen, the fibrous material widespread in the body. Second, there were cells which tended to join up edge to edge in a 'pavement' and which formed membranes such as skin. Thirdly there were sensitive cells which went on to become nerve cells. Finally, cells which wander about like amoebae. Later, they specialize further [into blood, etc.] Regardless of whether he started with tissue from mammals, amphibians or whatever animal group, he always got these four kinds." *G.R. Taylor, Great Evolution Mystery (1983), pp. 191-192.

CELLULAR EVOLUTION IMPOSSIBLE It is clear that there is no basis whatsoever for cellular evolution.

"The notion that not only the biopolymer but the operating programme of a living cell could be arrived at by chance in a primordial organic soup here on the Earth is evidently nonsense of a high order." *Fred Hoyle, "The Big Bang in Astronomy, " in New Scientist (1981) Vol. 91 pp. 521, 527.

"I think it is fair to say that all the facile speculations and discussions published during the last 10-15 years explaining the mode of origin of life have been shown to be far too simple-minded and to bear very little weight. The problem in fact seems as far from solution as it ever was.

"The origin of even the simplest cell poses a problem hardly less difficult. The most elementary type of cell constitutes a 'mechanism' unimaginably more complex than any machine yet thought up, let alone constructed, by man. There is no real clue as to the way in which any of these riddles were solved, so it is open to anyone to espouse any theory which he finds helpful." *W. Thorpe, "Reductionism in Biology," in Studies in the Philosophy of Biology (1974), pp. 116117.

The leap from sand, gravel, and seawater to the living cell is a leap of such gigantic proportions that it leaves the thinking scientist breathless. Not even one of the hundred known parts of the living cell could be produced by randomness. Not one of the ten thousand functions of the living cell could be formulated by chance. The living cell is something that the evolutionists do best to leave alone. It is unmakeable and unchangeable. It dates back to Creation, and has no other possible origin.

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